AbstractIn this study we have determined the effects of the n-6 essential fatty acid gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) on the motility and invasive/metastatic nature of the human colon cancer cell lines HT115, HT29 and HRT18. Cell motility was induced by hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) and measured by both colony scattering and dissociation from carrier beads. Invasiveness was measured in vitro by cellular invasion into extracellular matrix. At concentrations up to 100 microM (which had no effect on cell growth over the duration of the experiments) both cell motility and invasion induced by HGF/SF were markedly reduced by GLA and its lithium salt. The attachment of these cells to the extracellular matrix components (Matrigel and fibronectin) was also inhibited. There were also changes in the cell-surface E-cadherin, but not fibronectin receptor at similar concentrations. It is concluded that n-6 essential fatty acids have the ability to inhibit both motility and invasiveness of human colon cancer cells, perhaps by modifying cell-surface adhesion molecules.
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